Despite the technological advances carried out in the structure of smart cities, the implementation of IoV (Internet of Vehicles) technology is still in the development phase with pilot tests to create an ecosystem of connected vehicles and autonomous (CAV). We can find multiple cases such as Seat and Tesla who are validating mechanisms committed to autonomous driving. In less than ten years, urban mobility will undergo the most significant transformation since the invention of the motor.
In this way, new international standards based on Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) that includes multiple communication systems as V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle), V2P (vehicle-to-person), V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure), and others have been developed to design a mobility model with status data focused on designing cars that share observations gained by sensors and advanced environmental information. Cars can be aware of what is happening in the city and streets as obstacles, crosswalks, weather, and environmental conditions, among others. Drivers and automatic cars are not only warned against dangers that they cannot perceive themselves yet; also, non-communicating road users are taken into account and protected in different traffic situations.
Image 1. Cybersecurity Framework for the Internet-of-Vehicles
A main innovation in the IoV field is the application of the EIP (Environmental Information Publisher) in the autonomous decision-making process of vehicles, not only informing about the state of the city in terms of environmental pollution (CO, O3, NO2, CO2), Particulate Matter PM1, PM2.5, PM10, weather (rain, wind, temperature, ice on the street), noise levels and the influx of people but also to react and change by remote management aspects as a speed control to reduce the impact of traffic flow.
The implementation of C-ITS and V2X provides cities with safer and more respectful mobility with the environment and with people, integrating all the Smart City information monitored in real-time by HOPU's IoT device Smart Spot. To test the system, a pilot was launched in the city of Geneva where the Transports Publics Genevois (TPG).
This pilot integrates the idea of adjusting the driving parameters, especially regarding the maximum levels allowed on the road to avoid acceleration and braking (since they cause most of the pollution associated with vehicles), alternative routes, the concentration of gases and PM particles as the main terms of AQi and noise levels. All the information located in the databases is crossed between the different static IoT nodes installed in the Smart City and the smart vehicles. The real-time data generated by the Smart Spot can be interpolated using algorithms, providing a map or more detailed information grid. The vehicles will request to adjust their conditions and routes that are more favorable for air quality. In addition to these parameters generated in real-time, creating healthier walkable routes is incorporated as the system identifies the number of people in walking areas, developing alternative routes to reduce the traffic of non-electric vehicles.
Image 2. TPG pilot diagram
The sensor nodes will also trigger the nearby RSU devices in case of identification of polluters. RSUs act as C-ITS stations to facilitate I2V communications. C-ITS applications developed in the project will send personalized messages directly to the vehicles regarding emission levels, access restrictions,s or calls for technical revisions. For C-ITS and automated vehicles, the communication will rely on the deployment of the IEEE 802.11p. protocol. For non-C-ITS equipped vehicles, a customized interface will send notifications to smart in-vehicle devices (navigators/smartphones).
min number of 10MHz Channels|
||Rural (Highway) |
|CAM cooperative awareness message ||9||10||10||0.9|
|DENM decentralized environmental ||4||2||1||0.1|
|SPATEM signal phase and timing, MAPEM road/lane topology and traffic maneuver, IVI in-vehicle-information and other I2V messages||1||1||1||0.5|
|VAM VRU awareness message||4||0.2||2||0.5|
|PCM platooning control message ||3||6||10||1|
|CPM collective perception message||23||26||24||2|
|MCM maneuver coordination message||23||26||24||2|
|Minimum basic spectrum needs in MHz total number
of 10 MHz channels required||67||72||72||7|
Table 1. Messages for environmental data exchange to onboard units.
HOPU facilitates I2V communications in urban areas through Roadside units (C-ITS Stations) for the direct communication between nIoVe RSUs systems (Smart Spot acting as an Environmental Information Publisher) and the vehicles. For C-ITS and automated vehicles, the communication will rely on the deployment of the IEEE 802.11p. protocol (and LTE/5G networks in the future). Our research is focused on developing I2V applications as an extension of the basic C-ITS applications with messages for noise and emission levels, information about access to sensitive zones, and other useful information such as an invitation for technical revision in the case of high-emitter vehicles.
One challenge we will overcome is the integration with the Digital Transport Rules in the area of deployment. This will allow the adaptation of dynamic rules from nIoVe dedicated to each vehicle and user group, for example, regulations applied to user groups (e.g. Passengers with Reduced Mobility PRMs) and vehicle categories (e.g. Heavy Goods Vehicle HGVs). Thus, based on the defined access condition and the individual pollution measurements from the detection node, the driver will be informed directly. For non-C-ITS-equipped vehicles, a basic version of the access regulation will be made available via smart in-vehicle devices (navigators/smartphones). For public authorities, I2V applications provide a new way to regulate access and control of vehicles in sensitive urban areas and reduce the time between identifying a critical environmental situation, the definition of response measures, and their communication to city stakeholders.
Image 3. HOPU / nIoVe EIP system.
Not only connecting vehicles within the environment situation of the city and external information as what is happening on the street (other cars, people, obstacles and works) but also providing automatically suggestions and even urgent measures like automatic slowing down or braking we can make cities safer, with better urban health and working on the achievement of the Sustainable Development Objectives. In this area, the nIoVe project is an ally for administrations, transport companies, and vehicle industries to support innovations looking to the future of smart cities and smart mobility.